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  • Optimizing Art Business Outcomes Through Data Analytics

    Posted by José Valentino Ruiz on August 20, 2023 at 7:03 am

    “Optimizing Art Business Outcomes Through Data Analytics”

    José Valentino Ruiz, Ph.D., D.Min.

    University of Florida

    Abstract

    This article critically explores the profound implications of
    quantitative data utilization across four distinct domains of artistic
    manifestation: arts entrepreneurs, concert creators, musicians, and
    digital content creators. Offering a comprehensive analysis, the article
    delves into the nuanced methodologies through which each cohort can
    harness quantitative insights to forecast trends, cultivate heightened
    engagement, and optimize overall outcomes. For arts entrepreneurs, the
    integration of predictive models, founded upon meticulously collected
    sales data and discerning customer demographics, emerges as a guiding
    mechanism informing artistic ideation and pricing paradigms.
    Concurrently, concert creators stand to benefit from data-driven
    prognostications, which bear the potential to anticipate event
    attendance dynamics and facilitate targeted marketing endeavors for
    maximal resonance. Musicians are poised to derive dividends from
    predictive analytics—encompassing song performance, streaming metrics,
    and audience engagement—thus catalyzing the strategic refinement of
    creative content. Notably, digital content creators accrue advantage by
    employing historical data analytics to forecast audience expansion and
    content engagement metrics, thereby shaping an optimal content strategy.
    The collective adoption of these tailored quantitative strategies
    furnishes creative practitioners with a refined navigational compass to
    traverse their respective domains with perspicacity, thereby instigating
    innovation, ameliorating outreach trajectories, and engendering
    resonant triumph.

    Keywords: quantitative data utilization, creative enterprises, arts entrepreneurs,
    concert creators, musicians, digital content creators, predictive
    models, sales data, customer demographics, event attendance, marketing
    endeavors, streaming metrics, audience engagement, content strategy,
    innovation, outreach trajectories

    Background and Context

    As a global ambassador for multiple music manufacturing companies, I’ve had the incredible privilege of collaborating closely with managing directors to craft impactful video content. In this creative journey, we embraced strategic marketing approaches and harnessed the full power of analytics to drive our endeavors. This concerted effort propelled us towards our target consumers on a global scale, resulting in heightened sales, amplified brand awareness, and an enhanced image for myself as an artist. This fusion of strategic marketing and data analytics is a game-changer that not only revitalizes careers but reshapes the very fabric of the music industry’s landscape. At the helm of JV Music Enterprises, an award-winning music and media production company, these concepts are deeply woven into our DNA. They form the cornerstone of our mission to elevate the perceived value and impact of the products we create. This strategic approach also transforms our storytelling efforts, breathing life into the artist albums we produce. Every data-driven decision resonates not just in the creative process, but it reverberates across the industry, helping artists and clients secure coveted performances, endorsements, sponsorships, and other valuable opportunities.

    In this era of boundless possibilities, data has emerged as the lyrical backbone of success. Understanding how to harness its potential can tip the scales for enterprises that range from five figures to seven and even eight figures in revenue. This knowledge is a beacon guiding us through the labyrinthine concepts of the music industry, whether it’s the art of production, the intricacies of music manufacturing, the nuances of riveting performances, or the dynamics of selling online music education. Beyond the realm of music, my academic journey at the University of Florida further honed my expertise. Through rigorous study and completion of a PhD, I was equipped with a rich understanding of educational research, statistics, measurement, evaluation, and systematic study design. These high-level statistical courses have not only enriched my knowledge but also empowered me to seamlessly translate academic wisdom into actionable strategies for music and arts entrepreneur careers. This guide is an embodiment of these journeys, insights, and experiences. It’s a comprehensive roadmap for musicians and artists who seek to master the digital landscape, to thrive in an era where every note, every pixel, and every piece of data can shape their trajectory. Join me as we embark on a voyage through the strategic seas of marketing and the intricate networks of data analytics, discovering how they are the compasses that navigate careers, launch legacies, and transform the very definition of success in the realm of music.

    Importance of Applying Data Analytics for Musicians and Creative Professionals

    The contemporary music landscape has undergone a profound transformation, driven by the dynamic interplay of strategic marketing and data analytics – a fusion that now charts the trajectory of success. This profound convergence presents an unprecedented avenue for musicians and creative professionals to redefine their careers. In an era where digital realms are inundated with content, the pursuit of distinction necessitates a strategic finesse enabled by data analytics. Consider the profound implications of truly comprehending the harmonies, motifs, and aesthetics that resonate with your audience’s emotional core. Such discernment equips musicians not merely with more content, but with content that strikes a deeply personal chord. The outcome? A profound nexus of connections, enduring engagement, and a devoted fan base that feels truly valued and heard. Envision preparing for a forthcoming album launch, a concert tour, or an inundation of digital offerings. Enter predictive modeling – a seasoned companion. This sagacious technique affords musicians a glimpse into the horizon, unveiling trends, gauging audience responses, and steering campaigns with laser precision. Think of it as possessing a crystal ball that hones strategies and allays the risk of faltering notes.

    Yet, its prowess extends beyond these dimensions. Data-infused insights establish a conduit to genuine audience connections. Have you ever pondered why certain posts soar while others wane? By decoding these enigmas of engagement, musicians forge profound emotional bonds with their audience. This understanding fosters brand loyalty, ensuring fans remain devoted even as the music subsides. Prudent resource management, a covert asset, gains prominence. In a realm where resources, both fiscal and temporal, are invaluable, data analytics emerges as a roadmap, directing attention to the most luminous spotlight. Imagine it as a GPS for choices that epitomize value, every maneuver aligned with the grand tapestry. A bespoke brand identity – a reflection of the artist’s essence – becomes the ultimate aspiration. This is where data analytics wields its enchantment anew. It grants artists an introspective lens into their music’s perception, allowing for nuanced adjustments that resonate on a profound level. This backstage access begets a cohesive brand identity that resonates deeply with fans on a soulful plane. Remember, however, that data analytics isn’t an ephemeral conjuration; it’s a journey. Through unwavering vigilance and refinement, musicians remain attuned to shifting trends, optimizing strategies, and perpetually evolving. This fluid modus operandi ensures not just survival, but flourishing within a perpetually evolving sphere.

    In essence, the amalgamation of strategic marketing and data analytics evolves into a compass for musicians navigating the intricate labyrinth of today’s music industry. This unification empowers artists to transcend traditional confines, heralding a redefinition of the very essence of success. In an epoch where each note, each pixel, and every data point carries significance, embracing these methodologies isn’t merely a nod to technological prowess; it’s a wholehearted embrace of the enthralling vista that the future of music embodies. Embarking on an era characterized by discerning decision-making, this section embarks on an exploration of how data analytics furnishes musicians with the tools to embrace a strategic ethos. From dissecting historical trends to prognosticating future trajectories, it engenders an ecosystem that amplifies creative engagement, shaping an environment primed for innovation.

    Embracing Data Analytics for Informed Decision-Making

    1. Descriptive Analytics: This cornerstone of data analytics involves more than just summarizing historical data. It’s a strategy that enables musicians to scrutinize past trends and events with an analytical lens. By dissecting this information, artists can identify key patterns, engagement spikes, and content preferences. For instance, identifying that a certain type of content garnered a higher engagement rate on Wednesdays compared to Fridays might lead to a strategy of releasing similar content on those days for maximized impact.
    2. Diagnostic Analytics: Go beyond understanding what happened by diving into why it happened. This scientific process involves dissecting data to uncover the driving factors behind trends and patterns. For instance, by analyzing the sudden surge in views after a specific collaboration video, artists can identify that partnerships with like-minded creators significantly boost engagement. Armed with this knowledge, musicians can strategically seek out more collaboration opportunities.
    3. Predictive Modeling: Employ historical data to predict future trends and outcomes. Through the strategic application of machine learning algorithms, musicians can forecast which types of content are likely to resonate most with their audience. For instance, by analyzing trends in music genre popularity, an artist could predict that EDM-influenced tracks might gain more traction in the coming months and adjust their content creation accordingly.
    4. Prescriptive Analytics: Move from prediction to action by utilizing insights from predictive models. This strategy involves recommending specific courses of action based on the predicted outcomes. If the predictive model indicates that acoustic covers are likely to garner more engagement in the near future, an artist can take the strategic step of planning and releasing such content to align with the anticipated trend.

    Strategic Marketing: Crafting Your Unique Digital Identity

    1. Strategic Planning: Crafting a successful music career starts with a well-defined strategy. Develop a comprehensive plan that outlines your goals, target audience, and key performance indicators (KPIs). This serves as the guiding framework for all your marketing efforts, ensuring they align with your overarching objectives.
    2. Audience Understanding: Dive deep into audience demographics, psychographics, and behaviors. Employ scientific methods like surveys and data analysis to uncover nuanced insights. For example, identifying that a significant portion of your audience engages with music-related hashtags on social media might lead to a strategy of actively participating in relevant conversations to expand your reach.
    3. Content Marketing: Implement a content strategy that prioritizes value delivery. From detailed tutorials on songwriting to engaging vlogs showcasing your creative process, content marketing builds a loyal fan base that resonates with your authenticity. Incorporate data-driven insights to craft content that directly addresses your audience’s needs and preferences.
    4. Influencer Collaboration: Scientifically select influencers whose audience aligns with your target demographic. Analyze engagement rates and audience demographics to identify potential collaborators. Collaborating with influencers whose followers have a high affinity for your music genre ensures a more effective reach.
    5. Multichannel Approach: Strategically diversify your digital presence across various platforms, each catering to specific audience segments. Employ data analytics to identify which platforms yield the highest engagement rates and tailor your content accordingly.

    Driving Engagement and Conversion

    1. Call to Action (CTA): Elevate engagement by employing compelling CTAs backed by behavioral psychology. Use A/B testing to determine which CTA language resonates most with your audience, leading to higher click-through rates and conversions.
    2. Conversion Rate: Optimize conversion rates through a systematic approach. Employ scientific methods to analyze user behavior, identify conversion bottlenecks, and strategically refine your landing pages, ensuring a smoother user journey from engagement to action.
    3. A/B Testing: The scientific method of A/B testing involves experimenting with different variables to identify optimal combinations. Test various content formats, CTA placements, and color schemes to scientifically determine what resonates most with your audience, enhancing engagement and conversion rates.
    4. ROI (Return on Investment): Employ data analytics to calculate the ROI of your marketing campaigns. Through precisely tracking campaign costs and correlating them with revenue generated, musicians can make informed decisions on resource allocation and campaign optimization.

    Building a Strong Online Persona

    1. Positioning: Scientifically craft a positioning statement that resonates with your target audience. Employ SWOT analysis to identify your unique strengths and align your brand with them. This strategy creates a distinct identity that stands out amidst the digital noise.
    2. Customer Persona: Deepen your understanding of your ideal fan by employing advanced data analysis techniques. Incorporate psychographic data to comprehend their values, interests, and motivations, allowing for hyper-targeted marketing strategies.
    3. Churn Rate: Address churn scientifically by analyzing engagement metrics and identifying potential triggers for audience disengagement. Employ data analytics to develop targeted re-engagement campaigns and content that resonate with inactive fans.

    Conclusion

    Delving into the intricate fusion of strategic marketing and data analytics can help musicians architect their journey to digital success with precision. The implementation of these strategies is not only an art but a scientific endeavor backed by data-driven insights. A well-crafted roadmap rooted in these principles can transform a music career from ordinary to extraordinary. Remember, every piece of content, every marketing decision, and every engagement strategy is an opportunity to apply these methodologies and elevate your music career to new heights. The digital landscape is vast, but armed with strategic insights and data-driven processes, you have the tools to navigate it with confidence and creativity. Let’s dive into a comprehensive strategic plan that incorporates the mentioned concepts to effectively market an album, utilizing data analytics to drive a three-month campaign with the ultimate goals of building interest, expanding the audience, and generating substantial financial revenue.

    Strategic Album Marketing Plan: Building Interest, Audience, and Revenue

    Month 1: Research and Foundation

    1. Descriptive Analytics and Market Research:

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  • Utilize descriptive analytics to study past album releases and identify trends in engagement.
  • Conduct market research to understand audience demographics, preferences, and behaviors.
  • Implement surveys and social media polls to gather insights directly from potential listeners.
  • 2. Positioning and SWOT Analysis:

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  • Develop a strong positioning statement for the album, highlighting its unique selling points.
  • Perform a SWOT analysis to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats within the market.

  • 3. Data Collection and Customer Persona:

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  • Collect data from social media, website traffic, and past album releases to refine customer personas.
  • Create detailed customer personas based on demographics, psychographics, and behaviors.

  • Month 2: Content Creation and Engagement

    1. Content Marketing and Influencer Collaboration:

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  • Craft engaging content that aligns with the album’s theme and resonates with customer personas.
  • Collaborate with influencers whose audience matches your target demographic for wider reach.

  • 2. Multichannel Approach and Call to Action (CTA):

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  • Share content across various platforms, tailoring it to each channel’s audience preferences.
  • Implement compelling CTAs to encourage engagement, such as subscribing, pre-ordering, or sharing.

  • 3. A/B Testing and Conversion Rate Optimization:

    Begin A/B testing with different versions of content, CTAs, and visuals to determine optimal combinations.

    • Analyze conversion rates to identify which content and strategies yield the highest engagement.

    Month 3: Data-Driven Campaign and Revenue Generation

    1. Predictive Analytics and Prescriptive Analytics:

    • Utilize predictive analytics to forecast potential audience responses based on historical data.
    • Implement prescriptive analytics to recommend specific actions to optimize engagement.

    2. Strategic Marketing and Targeting:

    • Develop a data-driven marketing strategy for the album release, considering predicted trends.
    • Target specific segments based on predictive insights to maximize impact.

    3. ROI Analysis and Churn Rate Monitoring:

    • Calculate the ROI of the campaign by comparing revenue generated to marketing expenses.
    • Monitor churn rates and implement re-engagement strategies for inactive audience segments.

    Outcome:

    • Building Interest: Through targeted content and data-driven strategies, interest in the album is piqued across different audience segments.
    • Expanding Audience: Precise targeting, influencer collaborations, and engaging content bring in new listeners, expanding the fan base.
    • Generating Financial Revenue: The strategic use of data analytics ensures optimized content and engagement strategies, resulting in increased album sales, merchandise purchases, and ticket sales for performances.

    Throughout the three-month plan, continuous monitoring and analysis of data analytics allow for adjustments and refinements based on real-time engagement metrics. This data-driven approach ensures that decisions are backed by insights, leading to an album marketing campaign that not only resonates with the audience but also generates substantial revenue and lasting brand impact.

    Here’s the comprehensive strategic plan with the added context of “digital content creators” while keeping everything else word for word:

    Comprehensive Strategic Plan for Arts Entrepreneurs, Concert Creators, Musicians, and Digital Content Creators

    Executive Summary

    Provide an overview of the plan’s objectives, tailored to arts entrepreneurs, concert creators, musicians, and digital content creators. Highlight key strategies for each audience and expected outcomes.

    Situation Analysis

    • Industry Overview: Describe the current state of the arts, concert, music, and digital content creation industry, including trends, challenges, and opportunities.
    • Competitor Analysis: Identify key players in each field and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

    Objectives and Goals

    Outline specific, measurable objectives for the campaign, considering the distinct goals of arts entrepreneurs, concert creators, musicians, digital content creators. This could involve audience growth, ticket sales, merchandise revenue, content engagement, or artistic impact.

    Data Collection and Analysis

    • Data Sources: Detail the sources of data you’ll be collecting, including social media analytics, website traffic, engagement metrics, and content performance, customized for each audience.
    • Data Analysis Tools: Mention the tools you’ll use for data analysis, such as Google Analytics, social media insights, or custom analytics platforms.

    Audience Persona Refinement

    Based on the collected data, further refine the audience personas for arts entrepreneurs, concert creators, musicians, and digital content creators to ensure they accurately represent your target demographics.

    Creative Content Strategy

    • Artistic Themes (Arts Entrepreneurs): Define the core themes that resonate with your artistic creations and align with your brand identity.
    • Event Concepts (Concert Creators): Specify the event concepts, performers, and experiences that will attract your desired audience.
    • Musical Themes (Musicians): Outline the musical themes and styles that will define your album and resonate with your fan base.
    • Content Types (Digital Content Creators): Detail the types of content you’ll create, such as videos, tutorials, vlogs, or live streams, and how they align with your niche.

    Engagement and Interaction

    • Collaboration Strategy (Arts Entrepreneurs): Detail the artists or organizations you’ll collaborate with to enhance your artistic projects.
    • Audience Interaction (Concert Creators): Describe strategies to engage the audience before, during, and after the event for an immersive experience.
    • Fan Engagement (Musicians): Explain how you’ll interact with your fan base through social media, live streams, and behind-the-scenes content.
    • Audience Interaction (Digital Content Creators): Describe strategies to foster audience engagement, respond to comments, and encourage sharing of your digital content.

    Conversion and Impact Optimization

    • Artistic Sales Strategy (Arts Entrepreneurs): Outline how you’ll optimize sales of your artistic creations, including limited editions or art subscriptions.
    • Ticket Sales Optimization (Concert Creators): Detail strategies to encourage early bird ticket purchases and group discounts for a higher conversion rate.
    • Album Sales and Streams (Musicians): Explain how you’ll strategically release singles, pre-orders, and bundles to maximize album sales and streaming numbers.
    • Content Monetization (Digital Content Creators): Describe how you’ll monetize your digital content, such as through ad revenue, sponsorships, or merchandise tie-ins.

    Predictive and Prescriptive Insights

    • Creative Predictive Insights (Arts Entrepreneurs): Share insights gained from predictive analytics on artistic trends and preferences to guide your creative process.
    • Event Attendance Predictions (Concert Creators): Utilize predictive analytics to estimate event attendance and strategically allocate resources.
    • Audience Predictive Insights (Musicians): Describe anticipated fan reactions to different music styles and how it informs your content release.
    • Content Engagement Predictions (Digital Content Creators): Explain how predictive analytics guide your content creation based on anticipated audience engagement.

    Targeted Marketing and Branding

    • Artistic Target Segments (Arts Entrepreneurs): Detail the segments you’ll target and how your marketing efforts will resonate with their artistic preferences.
    • Event Marketing Strategy (Concert Creators): Explain how your marketing efforts will cater to different audience segments, such as music enthusiasts and casual attendees.
    • Fan Outreach (Musicians): Describe how your branding and marketing will target existing fans and reach new listeners who resonate with your genre.
    • Content Distribution Strategy (Digital Content Creators): Detail how you’ll target your content to specific online platforms and social media channels based on your audience’s preferences.

    Performance Measurement and Artistic Impact

    • Revenue and Impact Metrics (Arts Entrepreneurs): Detail how you’ll track both financial revenue and the artistic impact of your creations.
    • Event Success Metrics (Concert Creators): Explain the metrics you’ll use to measure the success of your events, including attendance, engagement, and feedback.
    • Musical Impact Measurement (Musicians): Describe how you’ll measure the impact of your music through streaming numbers, fan engagement, and reviews.
    • Content Performance Metrics (Digital Content Creators): Outline the metrics you’ll use to gauge the success of your digital content, such as views, likes, shares, and comments.

    Continuous Improvement

    • Real-Time Monitoring: Explain how you’ll continuously monitor engagement metrics, artistic reception, event feedback, and content performance to adjust strategies as needed.
    • Post-Campaign Analysis: Describe how you’ll analyze the success of your campaigns, considering both financial results, audience engagement, and the resonance of your artistic creations and digital content.

    Conclusion

    Summarize the tailored strategic plan, reiterating the objectives, strategies, and expected outcomes for arts entrepreneurs, concert creators, musicians, and digital content creators. Emphasize the significance of a data-driven approach in building successful campaigns that align with the unique goals of each audience.

    Analyzing Quantitative Data to Develop Predictive Models

    Arts Entrepreneurs:

    For arts entrepreneurs, leveraging quantitative data to forecast trends in artistic preferences and consumer behavior is crucial. Start by collecting data on past sales, customer demographics, and engagement metrics from your online platforms. Once gathered, follow these steps:

    1. Data Preparation: Clean and organize your data, ensuring it’s free of errors and inconsistencies.

    2. Feature Selection: Identify key variables that influence your sales and artistic preferences.

    3. Regression Analysis: Utilize regression models to understand the relationship between variables. For instance, you might analyze how pricing affects sales volume.

    4. Predictive Insights: With your model developed, predict future sales based on different scenarios. For example, estimate sales for various pricing strategies or seasonal trends.

    Example: Using historical data, an arts entrepreneur may predict sales for upcoming art collections based on factors like pricing, artistic style, and customer demographics.

    Assignment: Collect data on past art collections, pricing, and customer profiles. Develop a regression model to predict sales for your next collection, considering different pricing scenarios.

    Concert Creators:

    Concert creators can harness quantitative data to forecast event attendance, ticket sales, and audience engagement. Follow these steps to develop predictive models:

    1. Data Collection: Gather data on previous events, ticket sales, marketing efforts, and event characteristics.

    2. Segmentation: Divide your audience into segments based on demographics, music preferences, and location.

    3. Time Series Analysis: Analyze historical attendance data to identify patterns and seasonality.

    4. Predictive Modeling: Utilize time series forecasting techniques to predict future attendance based on historical data and marketing efforts.

    Example: A concert creator could predict ticket sales for a new event by considering past attendance patterns, marketing spend, and the popularity of featured artists.

    Assignment: Gather data from your past events and develop a time series forecasting model to predict ticket sales for your next concert.

    Musicians:

    For musicians, leveraging quantitative data can help predict song performance, streaming numbers, and fan engagement. Follow these steps to create predictive models:

    1. Data Collection: Collect streaming data, social media engagement metrics, and fan demographics.

    2. Feature Engineering: Identify features that correlate with song popularity, such as release date, genre, or promotional efforts.

    3. Machine Learning Algorithms: Utilize machine learning algorithms like decision trees or random forests to predict future streaming numbers.

    4. Model Evaluation: Assess your model’s performance using metrics like Mean Absolute Error (MAE) or Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE).

    Example: A musician could predict streaming numbers for an upcoming song release by analyzing features like genre, release date, and pre-release marketing efforts.

    Assignment: Gather streaming data for your previous releases and build a predictive model to estimate streaming numbers for an upcoming song.

    Digital Content Creators:

    Quantitative data is essential for digital content creators to forecast content performance, audience growth, and engagement rates. Follow these steps to develop predictive models:

    1. Data Gathering: Collect data on content views, engagement metrics, and audience demographics.

    2. Content Segmentation: Categorize your content into different types (tutorials, vlogs, etc.) and topics.

    3. Time Analysis: Analyze how content performs over time, identifying trends and patterns.

    4. Predictive Algorithms: Use time series or regression models to predict future content views based on historical data and content characteristics.

    Example: A digital content creator could predict the view count for upcoming tutorial videos based on the popularity of previous tutorials and the level of audience engagement.

    Assignment: Compile data on your past tutorial videos and create a predictive model to estimate the view count for your next tutorial based on content type and historical trends.

    Indeed, it is crucial to follow these steps and examples as arts entrepreneurs, concert creators, musicians, and digital content creators can effectively leverage quantitative data to develop predictive models that guide their decisions and enhance their creative strategies. These assignments provide practical opportunities to apply the concepts and hone predictive modeling skills tailored to each audience’s specific goals and needs.

    Closing Thoughts

    The integration of data analytics into the realms of arts entrepreneurship, concert creation, music production, and digital content creation offers a strategic advantage for professionals in these fields. Through the utilization of predictive models and quantitative insights, practitioners can refine their approaches, engage their audiences more effectively, and make informed decisions. As the artistic landscape continues to evolve, the marriage of creativity and data-driven strategies stands as a pivotal means to achieve resonance, impact, and success. Through this guide, we’ve explored the practical applications of data analytics for each of these disciplines, emphasizing the importance of adapting to a landscape where information meets imagination.

    References

    Allen, P. (2022). Artist management for the music business: Manage your career in music: Manage the music careers of others. Focal Press.

    Capodilupo, D. (2015). Big Data and analytics: The future of music marketing. Florida Atlantic University.

    Kang, X., Chen, W., & Kang, J. (2019, December). Art in the age of social media: Interaction behavior analysis of Instagram art accounts. In Informatics (Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 52). MDPI.

    Kongar, E., & Adebayo, O. (2021). Impact of social media marketing on business performance: A hybrid performance measurement approach using data analytics and machine learning. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 49(1), 133-147.

    Mariani, M. M., & Wamba, S. F. (2020). Exploring how consumer goods companies innovate in the digital age: The role of big data analytics companies. Journal of Business Research, 121, 338-352.

    Sheth, J. (2021). New areas of research in marketing strategy, consumer behavior, and marketing analytics: The future is bright. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 29(1), 3-12.

    About the Author

    José Valentino Ruiz

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